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There were four main objectives, the first of which was to demonstrate that theoretical contributions of social psychology might be applicable to questions of mediated interaction. Previous research in social psychology, for the most part conducted in a face-to-face condition, might generalize to the new research and if it did not, this too might be of interest.

Familiar research findings related to such phenomena as leadership role emergence, intimacy management and effects of self-focused attention are among the theoretical concepts employed in the reported investigations of mediated communication. A second objective was to develop research methods for use in communication studies.

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A standardized test for assessing person perception in the video medium was developed. Further, a method for assessing communality of impressions, also termed inter subjectivity, was created for use in communication studies.

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The third objective was to attempt to find answers to problems posed by telecommunications designers and evaluators. For example, systems engineers have long pondered the issue of how much information is necessary for successful audio-video interaction. A more basic question, namely, whether or not nonverbal cues could be communicated effectively through this medium, was given careful consideration.

Finally, the fourth objective of the thesis was the attempt to identify the most successful dependent variables for use in experimental communication studies.

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Chapter Two was concerned with significant changes to social processes which might occur during mediated interaction. Two experimental studies comprised the chapter. Teleconferencing and leadership emergence. An attempt was made to assess the role of medium of communication on leadership differentiation in discussion groups. Groups of undergraduates met on five different occasions to solve human relations problems, either in face-to-face discussion situations, or over video conferencing networks.

In face-to-face conditions, development of Discovery Medical Polar Nabız Monitörü took almost a classic form, with sociometric measures system atically related to behavioural indexes; in the video teleconference conditions, role differentiation tendencies were sharply curtailed, and the relationship of sociometric indexes with indexes of verbal output were greatly diminished.

Speculations about how mediated communication may affect differentiation processes were offered. Distance, gaze and the intimacy equilibrium model in video-mediated and face-to-face dyads. This experiment focused on the Argyle-Dean Intimacy Equilibrium Model, gaze and social distance in face-to-face and video-mediated dyads.

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It was found that, during video-mediated interaction, communicators did not experience the anticipated degree of interpersonal remoteness or separation. What was expected to act as a technological barrier appeared to affect social influence but not interpersonal or informational communication.

Under video-mediated teleconference conditions, certain negative consequences of excessive intimacy especially assertiveness or dominance appeared less salient, while certain positive effects remained unchanged. Consequently, subjects in the video-mediated conditions liked each other to a greater degree, enjoyed the experiment to a greater extent, and perceived greater "closeness" than did subjects in face-to-face conditions. The levels of intradyadic gaze, which were significantly higher in the video-mediated dyads, may have increased perceived intimacy between communicators.

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Chapter Three examined the conceptualization and methodological development of intersubjectivity for use in communication studies. Four empirical studies are reported in this chapter. Intersubjectivity: a concept and methodology for communication studies.

A kardiyo kalp sağlığı arginin study of intersubjectivity, a condition of shared impressions or communality of experience between individuals, was undertaken.

The origins of this concept were considered and an attempt was made to show its compatibility with other theory in social psychology. Methodologies were developed for measuring the extent of intersubjectivity in communication studies. These may be employed to test differences of dispersion or variability in semantic differential ratings. Subsequent investigations of mediated communication may benefit from this type of analysis.

Variation in person perception as a function of cultural differences between encoder and decoder. This investigation, composed of two studies, assessed variation in person perception occurring as a function of cultural differences between encoder and decoder. Understanding of such variation may be essential as cross-cultural mediated communication becomes Discovery Medical Polar Nabız Monitörü commonplace.

A multicultural subject population of psychiatric nursing students was subdivided into categories either like or unlike the apparent cultural background of two encoders in a standardized person perception Discovery Medical Polar Nabız Monitörü. It was found Discovery Medical Polar Nabız Monitörü, as predicted, like decoders were more effective at classifying the encoders' nonverbal communicative acts than were unlike decoders. - Türkiye'nin İlan Portalı

Moreover, like decoders formed more homogeneous impressions of the encoders' personalities. Implications for international teleconferences were considered. Comparing social influence and intersubjectivity in three communication conditions.

This quasi-experiment attempted to assess social influence and intersubjectivity in three dyadic conditions: a simulated-distance teleconference, b real-distance teleconference, and c face-to-face conference. Indexes of intersubjectivity but not social influence showed significant differences.

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There was greater communality of experience among face-to-face dyads than among dyads in either of the teleconference conditions. Differences between the two teleconference conditions were not evident.

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Further, this study considered some problems associated with employing rigorous experimental methodologies in settings which do not allow adequate experimental control. An assessment of differential intersubjectivity in five communication conditions.

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In this experiment, several intersubjectivity analyses were performed on data from five communication conditions. Two were audio-video mediated dyadic interactions with distances comparable to IV 2 metres, and V 3 metres. Communality of impressions formed of their discussions was assessed. It was found that, as predicted, greatest intersubjectivity coincided with greatest immediacy and social presence.

The intersubjectivity analyses complemented and extended previous findings. An assessment of inter subjectivity in equivalent groups.

This study compared the homogeneity of impressions formed of two encoders by members of equivalent groups. The purpose was to demonstrate that differences do not necessarily emerge when an intersubjectivity analysis is performed.

Both groups of subjects viewed a standardized person perception test and then rated the encoders' personalities using semantic differentials. Results showed no significant group differences in homogeneity of impressions formed of either encoder. Chapter Four considers the way in which medium of communication can be responsible for the attenuation of social cues, and investigates this in two studies.

Consequences of reduced information rates for person perception in a video medium. The independent variable manipulation was created by a video frame rate continuum ranging from 30 frames per second f. The first condition Discovery Medical Polar Nabız Monitörü full bandwidth was perceived as continuous motion while the last condition was perceived as frequently updated static images. A standardized person perception task was administered in each condition to separate experimental groups.

It was found that a there was an optimal information rate at which intersubjective agreement in perception was maximal, b at 15 f. Implications of these findings for both orientations were considered. An effect of the absence of colour cues on person perception in the video medium. In an attempt to demonstrate yüksek tansiyon tedavi edilmez effect of the absence of colour as a social cue, a standardized person perception test Discovery Medical Polar Nabız Monitörü performed using blackand- white and colour video displays.

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The experimental task was to decode nonverbal communicative acts which were depicted by a male and a female encoder 19 acts each and then to rate the encoders' personalities using a semantic differential. It was predicted that colour as a social cue might function at two levels; the first contributing to decoders' interpretations of specific communicative acts and the second contributing to overall impressions formed of the two encoders by decoders.

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Evidence was found for the second effect but not for the first. Consequences of this finding for Discovery Medical Polar Nabız Monitörü mediated communication were considered.

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Chapter Five contains a content analysis of two mediated communication studies. Content analyses of cross-media studies. This investigation attempted to content analyse two studies which were reported earlier.

One study compared leadership emergence in four-person groups which met either face-toface or using an audio-video teleconference system. The other study compared negotiation outcomes in face-to-face, simulated-distance teleconferencing and real-distance teleconferencing dyads.

Social psychological literature suggested a number of interpersonal communication variables which were considered: a verbal including frequency and duration of talking, interruptions, back channel responses and invited comment, b paraverbal including filled pauses, ritualized speech and sentence disfluences, and c nonverbal including Discovery Medical Polar Nabız Monitörü and duration of gaze, smiles, head movements, gestures and postural changes.

There were more verbal utterances and gestures exchanged in face-to-face interactions; mediated communicators gazed more but interrupted each other less. Considering the number of dependent measures under investigation, significant media differences proved somewhat elusive. Nevertheless, interrelationships between dependent variables were sufficiently systematic to encourage further investigations using a multidimensional approach, and suggestions were offered for future content analyses in cross-media studies.

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Chapter Six deals with some aspects and consequences of self-focused attention which may necessarily arise during mediated communication. A demonstration of age-related differences in the preference to teleconference. This field study attempted to demonstrate an age-related difference in the preference to use a teleconference Discovery Medical Polar Nabız Monitörü. Visitors to a faculty of engineering's open house were Discovery Medical Polar Nabız Monitörü into four age categories: I elementary school, II secondary school, III university and junior career, and IV middle and senior career.

The frequency and duration of teleconference system use were found to decrease across the four categories. The compatibility of these results with Duval and Wicklund's theory of objective selfawareness was considered. Video feedback and self-assessment of communication effectiveness. Two studies attempted to demonstrate a negative shift in self-assessment of communication task performance following video feedback. Both studies found that subjects typically perceived their task performance to be below their expectations of effectiveness.

There was the suggestion that this reduced effectiveness was more personal than media-related Study Iand that it was more of an enduring disability than a temporary one Study II.

Also, in the second study, personal performance was rated Discovery Medical Polar Nabız Monitörü than peer performance of the same task. It seems likely that most video-based teleconference systems can evoke states of objective self-awareness among users and, in addition, many systems provide video feedback with the use of self-reference monitors.

Experiences of self-focused attention, video feedback and subsequent negative self-attributions may bring about a reluctance to use teleconference systems.

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Determining the effect of self-focused attention on communication task performance. In this experiment, an attempt was made to determine the disruptive influences of self-focused attention, a phenomenon which might be evoked in teleconference cituations. Subjects performed a standardized person perception task and word perception task in one of three conditions: I high OSA created by the presence of a self-reference monitor and video camera, II medium OSA created by the presence of a video camera only, and HI low OSA without a self-reference monitor or video camera.

Three dependent measures, shown to discriminate conditions in communication studies, were employed. However, no evidence was found of reduced performance of the communication tasks.

Chapter Seven concludes the thesis, restating the findings according to three distinctions of methodology, application and theory. Suggestions about future contributions of social psychology to communications research are discussed. Sınıflandırma :.